The first 16 miles of the W&MV, from Wadley southwards, was built as a logging road in the 1880s. A 13-mile extension of the line to Ricksville was completed in 1889.
According to Poors 1895 Manual, the entire logging road property was sold to the Wadley & Mount Vernon Railroad Company, chartered April 30, 1890, which intended to connect its namesake towns via a 54-mile line.
In the 1894 edition of The Official Railway List, the W&MV reported operating 30 miles of railroad with 1 locomotive, 1 passenger car, and 10 freight and miscellaneous cars.
At some point the W&MV set its sights farther, to lands south of the Ocmulgee River. The line was extended to Rockledge in 1902 and to the Oconee River soon afterwards. From Douglas in Coffee County, the Wadley & Mount Vernon Extension Railroad buillt a line to Barrows Bluff on the Ocmulgee; this work was done between 1902 and 1904.
No additional trackage was ever constructed, and the two lines remained separated. Perhaps the costs of bridging both the Oconee and the Ocmulgee were too great for the W&MV to bear.
The short section of track from Rockledge to the Oconee River was abandoned around 1905, and the Douglas-Barrows Bluff line was sold to the Douglas, Augusta, & Gulf Railroad the following
The Central of Georgia bought the W&MV in 1906 and merged
it with the Stillmore Air Line Railway to form the Wadley Southern Railway.