The Sylvania Railroad Company was chartered January 3, 1884. The 15-mile line, which ran from Sylvania to the Central of Georgia at Rocky Ford, was complete by April of 1885. The Central provided much of the construction material for the line and held a mortgage on it.
In the 1894 edition of The Official Railway List, the Sylvania Railroad reported operating 15 miles of railroad with 1 locomotive, 1 passenger car, and 1 freight car.
After foreclosure in 1902, the Sylvania Central Railroad Company was organized the following year to take over the line.