Chartered in 1877, the 9.6-mile line between Lawrenceville and Suwanee in Gwinnett County was completed in 1881. Initially under the control of the Atlanta & Charlotte Air Line Railroad, it was sold to the Richmond & Danville Railroad in 1885. After 1894 it was owned by R&D successor Southern Railway.
From 1895 to 1912, Southern leased the road to J. R. McKelvey and S. P. Daniel. After that period Southern operated it, but did not change the railroad's name.
Originally built as a 3-ft gauge line, it was converted to standard gauge in 1911.
In 1917, Poor’s Manual reported that the Lawrenceville Branch Railroad operated one locomotive and two cars. The line was abandoned in May of 1920.