The Florida Central Railroad, incorporated under Georgia law on August 27, 1907, began operations on May 4, 1908, running 47 miles between Thomasville, Georgia, and Fanlew, Florida. It was controlled by J. L. Philips & Company, which owned nearly all of the stock, and was headquartered in Thomasville.
For the first few miles south of Thomasville, the tracks ran parallel to and east of a branch of the Atlantic Coast Line. At Fincher, close to the state line, the two railroads crossed with the FC heading southwest to Miccosukee while the ACL continued southeast to Monticello. From Miccosukee the FC ran south to a connection with the Seaboard Air Line Railway at Capitola and from there on to Fanlew.
A 1908 timetable and some maps indicate that the railroad continued beyond Fanlew about 12 miles to Vereen, Florida, on the Seaboard branch between Tallahassee and St. Marks.
Having defaulted on a bond interest payment, the FC entered receivership in June 1912. Around that time, it owned two locomotives and two cars.
The FC was sold in October 1914 to the Atlantic Coast Line, which soon abandoned the north end of the line from Fincher to Thomasville. The tracks to Fanlew remained in service for a few more years.