The Eatonton Branch Railroad opened its 22-mile line between Eatonton and Milledgeville in 1853. At the latter city the line met the new Milledgeville & Gordon Railroad which connected the capital with the Central of Georgia at Gordon. Within a couple of years the two railroads merged into a single line leased to the Central.
In 1893 the Central’s lease was cancelled and the road was leased to the Middle Georgia & Atlantic Railway which incorporated it into a 64-mile line from Milledgeville to Covington. The Central of Georgia acquired the MG&A in 1897.
The Eatonton-Machen segment was abandoned in 1959. The Eatonton-to-Milledgeville section is now a part of Norfolk Southern Railway.