Chartered in 1866, this little railroad opened in 1868 as a horse-drawn line and maintained that status for at least two decades. Poors 1888 Manual listed it as having 7 miles of horse line and 1.5 miles of freight line. Its equipment at the time consisted primarily of 75 horses and 15 cars. For the year it carried 819,035 passengers at a average fare of 4.67 cents.
The passenger streetcar operation was sold in 1890 and the A&S became a 3.2-mile switching line connecting other railroads in the city. In 1897, after its charter expired, the railroad was sold to the Southern Railway, the Central of Georgia, and the Charleston & Western Carolina. The Georgia Railroad acquired a one-fourth interest in the A&S in 1900.
The railroad still exists as a switching line owned jointly by CSX and Norfolk Southern.