The next belt line to arrive on the scene was the 8-mile Seaboard Air-Line Belt Railway, which was a connection between Howell and a point on the Georgia Carolina & Northern Railway (later merged into Seaboard) that was also called, confusingly, Belt Junction.* Chartered July 22,1892 and opened in March 1893, it made a long arc across the northern part of the city. Along its western section it ran parallel to, and north of, the earlier Georgia Pacific belt line. (See northside map.)
A belt line on the southeast side of town came with the 1899 organization of the Atlanta Belt Railway Company. This project had been started earlier by the Atlanta & West Point Railroad, which had made a survey for a 6-mile line from a point on its main line near East Point to a point on the Georgia Railroad on the east side of Atlanta near Inman Park (see A&WP Belt map). The A&WP had purchased about one-half of the right of way at a cost of $39,455 before a restraining order stopped the project. To complete the line it was necessary to incorporate the Atlanta Belt Railway Company as an independent company.
At the time it was reported that the company had a larger goal in mind:
|In the interest of the Atlanta & West Point, the Atlanta Belt Railway Company has applied for a charter to build a belt line about 30 miles long, beginning at or near Howell Station, on the northwest of the city of Atlanta, on the Western & Atlantic, Southern and the Seaboard Air Line railroads, and proceeding southerly and easterly around the city in Fulton County, and partly in De Kalb County, to or near a station on the line of the Georgia Railroad, known as Clifton; thence northerly and westerly further around the city, until it reaches the point of beginning. (Railway Age, September 22, 1899).
As it turned out, the Atlanta Belt Railway Company built the 5.5-mile line from the A&WP main line to Inman Park, completing it in 1900, then promptly leasing it to the A&WP. It did not construct any farther.
The next link was on the west side of town. It was initiated by the Central of Georgia, which in 1899 was reported to have secured 7.2 miles of right of way from East Point north to a connection with the Western & Atlantic at Howell. At the time, the Central and the Louisville & Nashville each had a half-interest in the lease of the Georgia Railroad, while the A&WP was controlled by the Georgia. The strongest party in this group was the L&N, which was intent on entering Atlanta as part of a new route from Cincinnati. Meanwhile, the Central was on its way out of the picture.
In his History of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Maury Klein summarized the events:
|In February, 1898, he (L&N president Milton H. Smith) managed to obtain the Central’s half of the Georgia Railroad lease by paying that hard-pressed company’s share of the rental. The Central promptly brought suit to regain its rights as co-lessee but lost the decision. Smith did not want sole possession of the lease (and its annual deficit) as much as he wanted to eliminate the Central’s negative attitude from the Georgia’s management. In August, 1899, the L&N sold half interest in the lease to the more reliable Atlantic Coast Line.
Although the L&N could exert significant influence over the other three railroads, it could not easily control Georgia’s legislature, which viewed it as a potential threat to the value of the state-owned Western & Atlantic. An L&N incursion into Atlanta and northern Georgia might compete with the W&A, especially as the two railroads neared Atlanta. For this reason, it was perhaps preferable that the Central, not the L&N, start the process of building a belt line on the west side of Atlanta. Besides, the Central was a Georgia-based enterprise while the L&N was not.
L&N had some advantages, specifically the Georgia Railroad lease and a significant interest in the A&WP. But these two railroads were on the east and the south sides of Atlanta, and the L&N would probably have to approach the city from the northwest (the W&A’s territory).
As part of its strategy to enter Atlanta, L&N acquired the Atlanta Knoxville & Northern Railway, which extended from Knoxville to Marietta, by stock purchase in 1902. For the Marietta-Atlanta link, the AK&N acquired trackage rights on the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway, which had leased the Western & Atlantic. L&N owned a majority of the NC&StL’s stock, which certainly helped in getting the desired rights. Lastly, L&N acquired $200,000 in Atlanta Belt stock, which would help it get around the southeast side of the city to a connection with the Georgia Railroad.
By 1904, the various parts of the plan came together. The west side belt line was constructed by the AK&N, and the following year L&N trains began running into the city. (See westside map.)
Also in 1904, the Southern Belt Railway Company was incorporated to build a rail line about three miles long on the north and west sides of downtown Atlanta to connect Southern Railway lines entering the city. Much closer to downtown than the other belt lines, this link, along with the new Terminal Station under construction at the time, led to several changes in Southern’s Atlanta operations, including the discontinuance of passenger service along the original northeast mainline. This older line became known as the Southern belt line (today's Eastside Trail).